[lpr-formatted version courtesey of Blair P. Houghton]

	  Recommended C Style and Coding Standards

			L.W. Cannon
			R.A. Elliott
		       L.W. Kirchhoff
			J.H. Miller
			J.M. Milner
			 R.W. Mitze
			 E.P. Schan
		      N.O. Whittington

			 Bell Labs

		       Henry Spencer

		  Zoology Computer Systems
		   University of Toronto

			David Keppel

		     EECS, UC Berkeley
	       CS&E, University of Washington

			Mark Brader

		   SoftQuad Incorporated


	  This document is an updated  version  of  the
     Indian  Hill  C  Style and Coding Standards paper,
     with modifications by the last three authors.   It
     describes a recommended coding standard for C pro-
     grams.  The scope is coding style, not  functional

July 19, 1991

		      Recommended C Style and Coding Standards

				    L.W. Cannon
				    R.A. Elliott
				   L.W. Kirchhoff
				    J.H. Miller
				    J.M. Milner
				     R.W. Mitze
				     E.P. Schan
				  N.O. Whittington

				     Bell Labs

				   Henry Spencer

			      Zoology Computer Systems
			       University of Toronto

				    David Keppel

				 EECS, UC Berkeley
			   CS&E, University of Washington

				    Mark Brader

			       SoftQuad Incorporated

	    1.  Introduction

		 This document is a modified version of a document  from
	    a committee formed at AT&T's Indian Hill labs to establish a
	    common set of coding standards and recommendations  for  the
	    Indian  Hill  community.  The scope of this work is C coding
	    style.   Good  style  should  encourage  consistent  layout,
	    improve  portability, and reduce errors.  This work does not
	    cover functional organization, or general issues such as the
	    use of gotos.  We[1] have tried  to  combine  previous  work
	    [1,6,8] on C style into a  uniform  set  of  standards  that
	    should  be  appropriate  for  any  project using C, although
	    parts are biased towards particular systems.  Of  necessity,
	    these standards cannot cover all situations.  Experience and
	    informed  judgement  count  for   much.    Programmers   who
	    encounter  unusual  situations should consult either experi-
	    enced C programmers or code written by  experienced  C  pro-
	    grammers (preferably following these rules).

		 The standards in this document are  not  of  themselves
	    required,  but  individual  institutions or groups may adopt
	    part or all of them as a part of program acceptance.  It  is
	    therefore  likely  that others at your institution will code
	    in a similar style.  Ultimately, the goal of these standards
	    is  to  increase  portability, reduce maintenance, and above
	    all improve clarity.

		 Many of the style choices here are somewhat  arbitrary.
	    Mixed  coding  style  is  harder to maintain than bad coding
	    style.  When changing existing code it is better to  conform
	    to  the style (indentation, spacing, commenting, naming con-
	    ventions) of the existing code than it is to blindly  follow
	    this document.

		 ``To be clear is professional; not to be clear  is
		 unprofessional.'' - Sir Ernest Gowers.

	    2.  File Organization

		 A file consists of  various  sections  that  should  be
	    separated by several blank lines.  Although there is no max-
	    imum length limit for source files,  files  with  more  than
	    about  1000  lines  are cumbersome to deal with.  The editor
	    may not have enough temp space to edit  the  file,  compila-
	    tions will go more slowly, etc.  Many rows of asterisks, for
	    example, present little information compared to the time  it
	    takes  to  scroll  past,  and are discouraged.  Lines longer
	    than 79 columns are not handled well by  all  terminals  and
	    should be avoided if possible.  Excessively long lines which
	    result from deep indenting are often a  symptom  of  poorly-
	    organized code.

	    2.1.  File Naming Conventions

		 File names are made up of a base name, and an  optional
	    period  and  suffix.  The first character of the name should
	    be a letter and all characters (except the period) should be
	    lower-case  letters  and  numbers.   The base name should be
	    eight or fewer characters and the suffix should be three  or
	    fewer  characters  (four, if you include the period).  These
	    rules apply to both program files and default files used and
	    produced by the program (e.g., ``rogue.sav'').

		 Some  compilers  and  tools  require   certain   suffix
	    conventions  for names of files [5].  The following suffixes
	    are required:

	      -  C source file names must end in .c

	      -  Assembler source file names must end in .s

	    The following conventions are universally followed:

	      -  Relocatable object file names end in .o

	      -  Include header file names end in .h.  An alternate con-
		 vention   that  may  be  preferable  in  multi-language
		 environments is to suffix both the language type and .h
		 (e.g. ``foo.c.h'' or ``foo.ch'').

	      -  Yacc source file names end in .y

	      -  Lex source file names end in .l

		 C++ has compiler-dependent suffix conventions,  includ-
	    ing  .c,  ..c, .cc, .c.c, and .C.  Since much C code is also
	    C++ code, there is no clear solution here.

		 In addition, it is  conventional  to  use  ``Makefile''
	    (not  ``makefile'')  for the control file for make (for sys-
	    tems that support it) and ``README'' for a  summary  of  the
	    contents of the directory or directory tree.

	    2.2.  Program Files

		 The suggested order of sections for a program  file  is
	    as follows:

	    1.   First in the file is a prologue that tells what  is  in
		 that file.  A description of the purpose of the objects
		 in the files (whether they be functions, external  data
		 declarations or definitions, or something else) is more
		 useful than a list of the object names.   The  prologue
		 may  optionally  contain  author(s),  revision  control
		 information, references, etc.

	    2.   Any header  file  includes  should  be  next.   If  the
		 include  is for a non-obvious reason, the reason should
		 be commented.  In most cases, system include files like
		 stdio.h should be included before user include files.

	    3.   Any defines and typedefs that apply to the  file  as  a
		 whole  are  next.   One  normal order is to have ``con-
		 stant'' macros first, then  ``function''  macros,  then
		 typedefs and enums.

	    4.   Next come  the  global  (external)  data  declarations,
		 usually  in  the  order:  externs,  non-static globals,
		 static globals.  If a set of defines applies to a  par-
		 ticular  piece  of  global data (such as a flags word),
		 the  defines  should  be  immediately  after  the  data
		 declaration  or  embedded  in  structure  declarations,
		 indented to put the defines one level deeper  than  the
		 first keyword of the declaration to which they apply.

	    5.   The functions come last, and should be in some sort  of
		 meaningful   order.    Like   functions  should  appear
		 together.  A ``breadth-first'' approach (functions on a
		 similar  level  of  abstraction  together) is preferred
		 over depth-first (functions defined as soon as possible
		 before  or  after their calls).  Considerable judgement
		 is called for  here.   If  defining  large  numbers  of
		 essentially-independent   utility  functions,  consider
		 alphabetical order.

	    2.3.  Header Files

		 Header files are files that are included in other files
	    prior  to  compilation by the C preprocessor.  Some, such as
	    stdio.h, are defined at the system level and  must  included
	    by any program using the standard I/O library.  Header files
	    are also used to contain data declarations and defines  that
	    are needed by more than one program.  Header files should be
	    functionally organized, i.e., declarations for separate sub-
	    systems  should be in separate header files.  Also, if a set
	    of declarations is likely to change when code is ported from
	    one  machine  to  another, those declarations should be in a
	    separate header file.

		 Avoid private header filenames that  are  the  same  as
	    library  header  filenames.  The statement #include "math.h"
	    will include the standard library math header  file  if  the
	    intended one is not found in the current directory.  If this
	    is what you want to happen, comment this  fact.   Don't  use
	    absolute  pathnames  for  header files.  Use the  con-
	    struction for getting them from a standard place, or  define
	    them  relative  to  the  current  directory.  The ``include-
	    path'' option of the C compiler (-I on many systems) is  the
	    best  way  to  handle  extensive private libraries of header
	    files;  it  permits  reorganizing  the  directory  structure
	    without having to alter source files.

		 Header files that declare functions or  external  vari-
	    ables  should be included in the file that defines the func-
	    tion or variable.  That way, the compiler can do type check-
	    ing  and the external declaration will always agree with the

		 Defining variables in a header file  is  often  a  poor
	    idea.   Frequently  it  is a symptom of poor partitioning of
	    code between files.  Also, some objects  like  typedefs  and
	    initialized  data  definitions  cannot  be seen twice by the
	    compiler in one compilation.   On  some  systems,  repeating
	    uninitialized  declarations  without the extern keyword also
	    causes problems.  Repeated declarations can  happen  if  in-
	    clude  files  are  nested  and will cause the compilation to

		 Header files should not be nested.  The prologue for  a
	    header  file  should, therefore, describe what other headers
	    need to be #included for the header to  be  functional.   In
	    extreme  cases,  where a large number of header files are to
	    be included in several different source files, it is accept-
	    able to put all common #includes in one include file.

		 It is common to put the following into each .h file  to
	    prevent accidental double-inclusion.

		    #ifndef EXAMPLE_H
		    #define EXAMPLE_H
		    ...     /* body of example.h file */
		    #endif /* EXAMPLE_H */

	    This double-inclusion mechanism should not be  relied  upon,
	    particularly to perform nested includes.

	    2.4.  Other Files

		 It is conventional to have a file called ``README''  to
	    document both ``the bigger picture'' and issues for the pro-
	    gram as a whole.  For example, it is  common  to  include  a
	    list  of  all  conditional  compilation  flags and what they
	    mean.  It is also common to  list  files  that  are  machine
	    dependent, etc.


		    ``When the code and the comments disagree, both
			       are probably wrong.'' - Norm Schryer

		 The comments should describe what is happening, how  it
	    is  being done, what parameters mean, which globals are used
	    and which  are  modified,  and  any  restrictions  or  bugs.
	    Avoid,  however,  comments  that are clear from the code, as
	    such information rapidly gets out of  date.   Comments  that
	    disagree  with  the  code are of negative value.  Short com-
	    ments should  be  what  comments,  such  as  ``compute  mean
	    value'',  rather  than  how comments such as ``sum of values
	    divided by n''.  C is not assembler; putting  a  comment  at
	    the  top of a 3-10 line section telling what it does overall
	    is often more useful than a comment on each line  describing

		 Comments should justify offensive code.  The justifica-
	    tion should be that something bad will happen if unoffensive
	    code is used.  Just making code faster is not enough to  ra-
	    tionalize  a hack; the performance must be shown to be unac-
	    ceptable without the hack.  The comment should  explain  the
	    unacceptable  behavior  and  describe  why  the  hack  is  a
	    ``good'' fix.

		 Comments that  describe  data  structures,  algorithms,
	    etc., should be in block comment form with the opening /* in
	    columns 1-2, a * in column 2 before  each  line  of  comment
	    text,  and the closing */ in columns 2-3.  An alternative is
	    to have ** in columns 1-2, and put the closing  */  also  in

	     *  Here is a block comment.
	     *  The comment text should be tabbed or spaced over uniformly.
	     *  The opening slash-star and closing star-slash are
	     *  alone on a line.

	    ** Alternate format for block comments

		 Note that grep '^.\*' will catch all block comments  in
	    the file[2].  Very long block comments such as drawn-out dis-
	    cussions  and  copyright  notices  often  start  with  /* in
	    columns 1-2, no leading * before  lines  of  text,  and  the
	    closing */ in columns 1-2.  Block comments inside a function
	    are appropriate, and they should be tabbed over to the  same
	    tab  setting  as the code that they describe.  One-line com-
	    ments alone on a line should be indented to the tab  setting
	    of the code that follows.

		    if (argc > 1) {
			    /* Get input file from command line. */
			    if (freopen(argv[1], "r", stdin) == NULL) {
				    perror (argv[1]);

		 Very short comments may appear on the same line as  the
	    code they describe, and should be tabbed  over  to  separate
	    them  from  the  statements.  If more than one short comment
	    appears in a block of code they should all be tabbed to  the
	    same tab setting.

		    if (a == EXCEPTION) {
			    b = TRUE;		/* special case */
		    } else {
			    b = isprime(a);	/* works only for odd a */

	    4.  Declarations

		 Global declarations should  begin  in  column  1.   All
	    external  data  declaration should be preceded by the extern
	    keyword.  If an external variable is an array  that  is  de-
	    fined  with  an explicit size, then the array bounds must be
	    repeated in the extern declaration unless the size is always
	    encoded in the array (e.g., a read-only character array that
	    is always null-terminated).  Repeated size declarations  are
	    particularly  beneficial  to someone picking up code written
	    by another.

		 The ``pointer'' qualifier,  `*',  should  be  with  the
	    variable name rather than with the type.

		    char    *s, *t, *u;

	    instead of

		    char*   s, t, u;

	    which is wrong, since `t' and `u' do  not  get  declared  as

		 Unrelated declarations, even of the same  type,  should
	    be  on separate lines.  A comment describing the role of the
	    object being declared should be included, with the exception
	    that  a  list  of #defined constants do not need comments if
	    the constant names are sufficient documentation.  The names,
	    values, and comments are usually tabbed so that they line up
	    underneath each other.  Use the tab  character  rather  than
	    blanks  (spaces).  For structure and union template declara-
	    tions, each element should be alone on a line with a comment
	    describing  it.  The opening brace ({) should be on the same
	    line as the structure tag, and the closing brace (})  should
	    be in column 1.

		    struct boat {
			int	wllength;   /* water line length in meters */
			int	type;       /* see below */
			long	sailarea;   /* sail area in square mm */

		    /* defines for boat.type */
		    #define KETCH   (1)
		    #define YAWL            (2)
		    #define SLOOP   (3)
		    #define SQRIG   (4)
		    #define MOTOR   (5)

	    These defines are sometimes put right after the  declaration
	    of  type,  within  the  struct declaration, with enough tabs
	    after the `#' to indent  define  one  level  more  than  the
	    structure  member  declarations.  When the actual values are
	    unimportant, the enum facility is better[3].

		    enum bt { KETCH=1, YAWL, SLOOP, SQRIG, MOTOR };
		    struct boat {
			int     wllength;    /* water line length in meters */
			enum bt type;        /* what kind of boat */
			long    sailarea;    /* sail area in square mm */

		 Any variable whose initial value is important should be
	    explicitly  initialized, or at the very least should be com-
	    mented to indicate that C's default initialization  to  zero
	    is being relied upon.  The empty initializer, ``{}'', should
	    never be used.  Structure initializations  should  be  fully
	    parenthesized  with  braces.   Constants  used to initialize
	    longs should be explicitly long.  Use capital  letters;  for
	    example  two long ``2l'' looks a lot like ``21'', the number

		    int             x = 1;
		    char            *msg = "message";
		    struct boat     winner[] = {
			    { 40, YAWL, 6000000L },
			    { 28, MOTOR, 0L },
			    { 0 },

		 In any file which is part of a larger whole rather than
	    a  self-contained program, maximum use should be made of the
	    static keyword to make functions and variables local to sin-
	    gle  files.   Variables  in  particular should be accessible
	    from other files only when there is a clear need that cannot
	    be filled in another way.  Such usage should be commented to
	    make it clear that another file's variables are being  used;
	    the  comment  should  name the other file.  If your debugger
	    hides static objects you need to see during  debugging,  de-
	    clare them as STATIC and #define STATIC as needed.

		 The most  important  types  should  be  highlighted  by
	    typedeffing  them,  even  if  they are only integers, as the
	    unique name makes the program easier to  read  (as  long  as
	    there  are  only  a  few  things  typedeffed  to integers!).
	    Structures may be typedeffed when they are  declared.   Give
	    the struct and the typedef the same name.

		    typedef struct splodge_t {
			    int     sp_count;
			    char    *sp_name, *sp_alias;
		    } splodge_t;

		 The return type of functions should always be declared.
	    If  function prototypes are available, use them.  One common
	    mistake is to omit the declaration of  external  math  func-
	    tions  that  return  double.  The compiler then assumes that
	    the return value is an integer and the  bits  are  dutifully
	    converted into a (meaningless) floating point value.

		 ``C takes the point of view that the programmer is  al-
		 ways right.'' - Michael DeCorte

	    5.  Function Declarations

		 Each function should be preceded  by  a  block  comment
	    prologue that gives a short description of what the function
	    does and (if not clear) how to use it.  Discussion  of  non-
	    trivial  design decisions and side-effects is also appropri-
	    ate.  Avoid duplicating information clear from the code.

		 The function return type should be  alone  on  a  line,
	    (optionally) indented one stop[4].  Do not default to int; if
	    the function does not return a value then it should be given
	    return type void[5].  If the value returned requires  a  long
	    explanation,  it  should be given in the prologue; otherwise
	    it can be on the same line as the return type, tabbed  over.
	    The function name (and the formal parameter list) should  be
	    alone  on  a  line, in column 1.  Destination (return value)
	    parameters should generally be first  (on  the  left).   All
	    formal  parameter  declarations, local declarations and code
	    within the function body should be  tabbed  over  one  stop.
	    The  opening brace of the function body should be alone on a
	    line beginning in column 1.

		 Each parameter should be declared (do  not  default  to
	    int).   In general the role of each variable in the function
	    should be described.  This may either be done in  the  func-
	    tion  comment or, if each declaration is on its own line, in
	    a comment on that line.  Loop counters called ``i'',  string
	    pointers  called  ``s'', and integral types called ``c'' and
	    used for characters are typically excluded.  If a  group  of
	    functions  all  have  a like parameter or local variable, it
	    helps to call the repeated variable by the same name in  all
	    functions.   (Conversely, avoid using the same name for dif-
	    ferent  purposes  in  related  functions.)  Like  parameters
	    should also appear in the same place in the various argument

		 Comments for parameters and local variables  should  be
	    tabbed  so  that  they line up underneath each other.  Local
	    variable  declarations  should   be   separated   from   the
	    function's statements by a blank line.

		 Be careful when you use or declare functions that  take
	    a  variable  number of arguments (``varargs'').  There is no
	    truly portable way to do varargs in C.  Better to design  an
	    interface  that  uses  a  fixed number of arguments.  If you
	    must have varargs, use  the  library  macros  for  declaring
	    functions with variant argument lists.

		 If the function uses any external variables  (or  func-
	    tions)  that  are  not  declared globally in the file, these
	    should have their own declarations in the function body  us-
	    ing the extern keyword.

		 Avoid local declarations that override declarations  at
	    higher levels.  In particular, local variables should not be
	    redeclared in nested blocks.  Although this is valid C,  the
	    potential  confusion is enough that lint will complain about
	    it when given the -h option.

	    6.  Whitespace

		  int i;main(){for(;i["]next==NULL && totalcountnext == NULL
			    && totalcount < needed && needed <= MAX_ALLOT
			    && server_active(current_input))

	    Similarly, elaborate for loops should  be  split  onto  dif-
	    ferent lines.

		    for (curr = *listp, trail = listp;
			    curr != NULL;
			    trail = &(curr->next), curr = curr->next )

	    Other complex expressions, particularly those using the ter-
	    nary ?: operator, are best split on to several lines, too.

		    c = (a == b)
			    ? d + f(a)
			    : f(b) - d;

	    Keywords that are followed  by  expressions  in  parentheses
	    should  be  separated  from the left parenthesis by a blank.
	    (The sizeof operator is an exception.)  Blanks  should  also
	    appear  after  commas in argument lists to help separate the
	    arguments visually.  On the other  hand,  macro  definitions
	    with  arguments  must  not have a blank between the name and
	    the left parenthesis, otherwise the C preprocessor will  not
	    recognize the argument list.

	    7.  Examples

		 * Determine if the sky is blue by checking that it isn't night.
		 * CAVEAT: Only sometimes right. May return TRUE when the answer
		 * is FALSE.  Consider clouds, eclipses, short days.
		 * NOTE: Uses `hour' from `hightime.c'.  Returns `int' for
		 * compatibility with the old version.
			int                      /* true or false */
		    extern int      hour;        /* current hour of the day */

		    return (hour >= MORNING && hour <= EVENING);

		 *      Find the last element in the linked list
		 *      pointed to by nodep and return a pointer to it.
		 *      Return NULL if there is no last element.
			node_t *
			node_t  *nodep;          /* pointer to head of list */
		    register node_t *np;     /* advances to NULL */
		    register node_t *lp;     /* follows one behind np */

		    if (nodep == NULL)
			    return (NULL);
		    for (np = lp = nodep; np != NULL; lp = np, np = np->next)
			    ;       /* VOID */
		    return (lp);

	    8.  Simple Statements

		 There should be only one statement per line unless  the
	    statements are very closely related.

		    case FOO:         oogle (zork);  boogle (zork);  break;
		    case BAR:         oogle (bork);  boogle (zork);  break;
		    case BAZ:         oogle (gork);  boogle (bork);  break;

	    The null body of a for or while loop should be  alone  on  a
	    line and commented so that it is clear that the null body is
	    intentional and not missing code.

		    while (*dest++ = *src++)
			    ;       /* VOID */

		 Do not default the test for non-zero, i.e.

		    if (f() != FAIL)

	    is better than

		    if (f())

	    even though FAIL may have the value 0 which C  considers  to
	    be  false.   An  explicit  test will help you out later when
	    somebody decides that a failure return should be -1  instead
	    of  0.   Explicit comparison should be used even if the com-
	    parison value will never change;  e.g.,  ``if  (!(bufsize  %
	    sizeof(int)))''  should be written instead as ``if ((bufsize
	    % sizeof(int)) == 0)'' to reflect the numeric (not  boolean)
	    nature of the test.  A frequent trouble spot is using strcmp
	    to test for string equality, where the result  should  never
	    ever  be  defaulted.   The preferred approach is to define a
	    macro STREQ.

		    #define STREQ(a, b) (strcmp((a), (b)) == 0)

		 The non-zero test is often defaulted for predicates and
	    other functions or expressions which meet the following res-

	      -  Evaluates to 0 for false, nothing else.

	      -  Is named so that the meaning of (say) a  `true'  return
		 is  absolutely  obvious.   Call  a predicate isvalid or
		 valid, not checkvalid.

		 It  is  common  practice  to  declare  a  boolean  type
	    ``bool''  in  a  global include file.  The special names im-
	    prove readability immensely.

		    typedef int     bool;
		    #define FALSE   0
		    #define TRUE    1


		    typedef enum { NO=0, YES } bool;

	    Even with these declarations, do not check a  boolean  value
	    for equality with 1 (TRUE, YES, etc.); instead test for ine-
	    quality with  0  (FALSE,  NO,  etc.).   Most  functions  are
	    guaranteed  to return 0 if false, but only non-zero if true.

		    if (func() == TRUE) { ...

	    must be written

		    if (func() != FALSE) { ...

	    It  is  even  better  (where   possible)   to   rename   the
	    function/variable  or  rewrite  the  expression  so that the
	    meaning is obvious without a comparison  to  true  or  false
	    (e.g., rename to isvalid()).

		 There is a time and a  place  for  embedded  assignment
	    statements.   In  some  constructs there is no better way to
	    accomplish the results without making the code  bulkier  and
	    less readable.

		    while ((c = getchar()) != EOF) {
			    process the character

	    The ++ and -- operators count as assignment statements.  So,
	    for  many  purposes,  do functions with side effects.  Using
	    embedded assignment statements to improve  run-time  perfor-
	    mance  is  also  possible.  However, one should consider the
	    tradeoff between increased speed and decreased maintainabil-
	    ity  that  results when embedded assignments are used in ar-
	    tificial places.  For example,

		    a = b + c;
		    d = a + r;

	    should not be replaced by

		    d = (a = b + c) + r;

	    even though the latter may save one cycle.  In the long  run
	    the time difference between the two will decrease as the op-
	    timizer gains maturity, while  the  difference  in  ease  of
	    maintenance  will increase as the human memory of what's go-
	    ing on in the latter piece of code begins to fade.

		 Goto statements should be used  sparingly,  as  in  any
	    well-structured code.  The main place where they can be use-
	    fully employed is to break out of several levels of  switch,
	    for, and while nesting, although the need to do such a thing
	    may indicate that the inner constructs should be broken  out
	    into  a  separate  function,  with  a success/failure return

			    for (...) {
				    while (...) {
					    if (disaster)
						    goto error;

			    clean up the mess

	    When a goto is necessary the accompanying  label  should  be
	    alone  on a line and tabbed one stop to the left of the code
	    that follows.  The goto should be commented (possibly in the
	    block  header)  as  to  its  utility  and purpose.  Continue
	    should be used sparingly and  near  the  top  of  the  loop.
	    Break is less troublesome.

		 Parameters to non-prototyped functions  sometimes  need
	    to  be promoted explicitly.  If, for example, a function ex-
	    pects a 32-bit long and gets handed a  16-bit  int  instead,
	    the  stack can get misaligned.  Problems occur with pointer,
	    integral, and floating-point values.

	    9.  Compound Statements

		 A compound statement is a list of  statements  enclosed
	    by  braces.   There  are  many common ways of formatting the
	    braces.  Be consistent with your local standard, if you have
	    one,  or  pick  one  and  use it consistently.  When editing
	    someone else's code, always use the style used in that code.

		    control {

	    The style above is called ``K&R style'', and is preferred if
	    you  haven't  already  got  a favorite.  With K&R style, the
	    else part of an if-else statement and the while  part  of  a
	    do-while  statement  should  appear  on the same line as the
	    close brace.  With most other styles, the braces are  always
	    alone on a line.

		 When a block of code has several labels  (unless  there
	    are a lot of them), the labels are placed on separate lines.
	    The fall-through feature of the C  switch  statement,  (that
	    is,  when  there  is no break between a code segment and the
	    next case statement) must be commented  for  future  mainte-
	    nance.  A lint-style comment/directive is best.

		    switch (expr) {
		    case ABC:
		    case DEF:
		    case UVW:
		    case XYZ:

		 Here, the last break is unnecessary,  but  is  required
	    because  it prevents a fall-through error if another case is
	    added later after the last one.  The default case, if  used,
	    should be last and does not require a break if it is last.

		 Whenever an if-else statement has a compound  statement
	    for  either  the  if or else section, the statements of both
	    the if and else sections should both be enclosed  in  braces
	    (called fully bracketed syntax).

		    if (expr) {
		    } else {

		 Braces are also essential in if-if-else sequences  with
	    no  second  else such as the following, which will be parsed
	    incorrectly if the brace after (ex1) and its mate are  omit-

		    if (ex1) {
			    if (ex2) {
		    } else {

		 An if-else with else if should be written with the else
	    conditions left-justified.

		    if (STREQ (reply, "yes")) {
			    statements for yes
		    } else if (STREQ (reply, "no")) {
		    } else if (STREQ (reply, "maybe")) {
		    } else {
			    statements for default

	    The format then looks like a  generalized  switch  statement
	    and  the  tabbing reflects the switch between exactly one of
	    several alternatives rather than a nesting of statements.

		 Do-while loops should always  have  braces  around  the

		 The following code is very dangerous:

		    #ifdef CIRCUIT
		    #   define CLOSE_CIRCUIT(circno)  { close_circ(circno); }
		    #   define CLOSE_CIRCUIT(circno)

			    if (expr)

	    Note that on systems where CIRCUIT is not defined the state-
	    ment  ``++i;''  will  only  get executed when expr is false!
	    This example points out both the value of naming macros with
	    CAPS and of making code fully-bracketed.

		 Sometimes  an  if  causes  an   unconditional   control
	    transfer  via  break,  continue,  goto, or return.  The else
	    should be implicit and the code should not be indented.

		    if (level > limit)
			    return (OVERFLOW)
		    return (level);

	    The ``flattened'' indentation  tells  the  reader  that  the
	    boolean  test  is  invariant  over the rest of the enclosing

	    10.  Operators

		 Unary operators should not be separated from their sin-
	    gle operand.  Generally, all binary operators except `.' and
	    `->' should be separated  from  their  operands  by  blanks.
	    Some  judgement is called for in the case of complex expres-
	    sions, which may be clearer if the ``inner''  operators  are
	    not surrounded by spaces and the ``outer'' ones are.

		 If you think an expression will be hard to  read,  con-
	    sider  breaking  it  across lines.  Splitting at the lowest-
	    precedence operator near the break is  best.   Since  C  has
	    some  unexpected  precedence  rules,  expressions  involving
	    mixed  operators  should   be   parenthesized.    Too   many
	    parentheses, however, can make a line harder to read because
	    humans aren't good at parenthesis-matching.

		 There is a time and place for the binary  comma  opera-
	    tor, but generally it should be avoided.  The comma operator
	    is most useful to provide multiple initializations or opera-
	    tions,  as  in for statements.  Complex expressions, for in-
	    stance those  with  nested  ternary  ?:  operators,  can  be
	    confusing and should be avoided if possible.  There are some
	    macros like getchar where both the ternary operator and com-
	    ma operators are useful.  The logical expression operand be-
	    fore the ?: should be parenthesized and both  return  values
	    must be the same type.

	    11.  Naming Conventions

		 Individual projects will no doubt have their own naming
	    conventions.  There are some general rules however.

	      -  Names  with  leading  and  trailing   underscores   are
		 reserved for system purposes and should not be used for
		 any user-created names.   Most  systems  use  them  for
		 names  that  the  user should not have to know.  If you
		 must have your own private identifiers, begin them with
		 a  letter  or two identifying the package to which they

	      -  #define constants should be in all CAPS.

	      -  Enum constants are Capitalized or in all CAPS

	      -  Function, typedef,  and  variable  names,  as  well  as
		 struct,  union,  and  enum tag names should be in lower

	      -  Many macro ``functions'' are in all CAPS.  Some  macros
		 (such  as  getchar and putchar) are in lower case since
		 they may also exist  as  functions.   Lower-case  macro
		 names  are  only acceptable if the macros behave like a
		 function call, that is, they evaluate their  parameters
		 exactly  once and do not assign values to named parame-
		 ters.  Sometimes it is impossible to write a macro that
		 behaves  like  a function even though the arguments are
		 evaluated exactly once.

	      -  Avoid names that differ only in case, like foo and Foo.
		 Similarly, avoid foobar and foo_bar.  The potential for
		 confusion is considerable.

	      -  Similarly, avoid names that look like each  other.   On
		 many  terminals  and  printers,  `l',  `1' and `I' look
		 quite similar.  A variable named  `l'  is  particularly
		 bad because it looks so much like the constant `1'.

		 In general, global names (including enums) should  have
	    a  common  prefix  identifying  the  module that they belong
	    with.  Globals may alternatively  be  grouped  in  a  global
	    structure.   Typedeffed  names often have ``_t'' appended to
	    their name.

		 Avoid names that might conflict with  various  standard
	    library  names.  Some systems will include more library code
	    than you want.  Also, your program may be extended someday.

	    12.  Constants

		 Numerical constants should not be coded directly.   The
	    #define feature of the C preprocessor should be used to give
	    constants meaningful names.   Symbolic  constants  make  the
	    code  easier  to read.  Defining the value in one place also
	    makes it easier to administer large programs since the  con-
	    stant  value  can  be changed uniformly by changing only the
	    define.  The enumeration data type is a better  way  to  de-
	    clare  variables that take on only a discrete set of values,
	    since additional type checking is often available.   At  the
	    very  least, any directly-coded numerical constant must have
	    a comment explaining the derivation of the value.

		 Constants should be  defined  consistently  with  their
	    use;  e.g.  use 540.0 for a float instead of 540 with an im-
	    plicit float cast.  There are some cases where the constants
	    0 and 1 may appear as themselves instead of as defines.  For
	    example if a for loop indexes through an array, then

		    for (i = 0; i < ARYBOUND; i++)

	    is reasonable while the code

		    door_t *front_door = opens(door[i], 7);
		    if (front_door == 0)
			    error("can't open %s\n", door[i]);

	    is not.  In the last example front_door is a pointer.   When
	    a  value  is a pointer it should be compared to NULL instead
	    of 0.  NULL is available either as part of the standard  I/O
	    library's  header file stdio.h or in stdlib.h for newer sys-
	    tems.  Even simple values like 1 or 0 are often  better  ex-
	    pressed using defines like TRUE and FALSE (sometimes YES and
	    NO read better).

		 Simple character constants should be defined as charac-
	    ter  literals  rather than numbers.  Non-text characters are
	    discouraged as non-portable.   If  non-text  characters  are
	    necessary,  particularly  if  they are used in strings, they
	    should be written using a escape character  of  three  octal
	    digits  rather than one (e.g., '\007').  Even so, such usage
	    should be considered machine-dependent and treated as such.

	    13.  Macros

		 Complex expressions can be used  as  macro  parameters,
	    and  operator-precedence  problems  can arise unless all oc-
	    currences of parameters have parentheses around them.  There
	    is little that can be done about the problems caused by side
	    effects in parameters except to avoid side  effects  in  ex-
	    pressions  (a good idea anyway) and, when possible, to write
	    macros that evaluate their parameters exactly  once.   There
	    are times when it is impossible to write macros that act ex-
	    actly like functions.

		 Some macros also exist as  functions  (e.g.,  getc  and
	    fgetc).   The macro should be used in implementing the func-
	    tion so that changes to the macro will be automatically  re-
	    flected  in the function.  Care is needed when interchanging
	    macros and functions since function parameters are passed by
	    value,  while  macro parameters are passed by name substitu-
	    tion.  Carefree use of macros requires that they be declared

		 Macros should avoid using  globals,  since  the  global
	    name  may  be  hidden  by  a local declaration.  Macros that
	    change named parameters (rather than the storage they  point
	    at)  or  may  be used as the left-hand side of an assignment
	    should mention this in their comments.  Macros that take  no
	    parameters but reference variables, are long, or are aliases
	    for function calls should be given an empty parameter  list,

		    #define OFF_A() (a_global+OFFSET)
		    #define BORK()  (zork())
		    #define SP3()   if (b) { int x; av = f (&x); bv += x; }

		 Macros save function call/return overhead, but  when  a
	    macro  gets  long,  the  effect  of  the call/return becomes
	    negligible, so a function should be used instead.

		 In some cases it is appropriate to  make  the  compiler
	    insure that a macro is terminated with a semicolon.

		    if (x==3)

	    If the semicolon is omitted after the call to SP3, then  the
	    else  will  (silently!) become associated with the if in the
	    SP3 macro.  With the semicolon, the else doesn't  match  any
	    if!  The macro SP3 can be written safely as

		    #define SP3() \
			do { if (b) { int x; av = f(&x); bv += x; }} while (0)

	    Writing out the enclosing do-while by hand  is  awkward  and
	    some  compilers  and tools may complain that there is a con-
	    stant in the ``while'' conditional.  A macro  for  declaring
	    statements may make programming easier.

		    #ifdef lint
			    static int ZERO;
		    #       define ZERO 0
		    #define STMT( stuff )           do { stuff } while (ZERO)

	    Declare SP3 with

		    #define SP3() \
			    STMT( if (b) { int x; av = f (&x); bv += x; } )

	    Using STMT will  help  prevent  small  typos  from  silently
	    changing programs.

		 Except for type casts, sizeof, and hacks  such  as  the
	    above,  macros  should  contain  keywords only if the entire
	    macro is surrounded by braces.

	    14.  Conditional Compilation.

		 Conditional  compilation  is  useful  for  things  like
	    machine-dependencies, debugging, and for setting certain op-
	    tions at compile-time.  Beware of  conditional  compilation.
	    Various  controls can easily combine in unforeseen ways.  If
	    you #ifdef machine dependencies,  make  sure  that  when  no
	    machine  is specified, the result is an error, not a default
	    machine.  (Use ``#error'' and indent it  so  it  works  with
	    older  compilers.)  If you #ifdef optimizations, the default
	    should be the unoptimized code rather than  an  uncompilable
	    program.  Be sure to test the unoptimized code.

		 Note that the text inside of an #ifdeffed  section  may
	    be  scanned  (processed) by the compiler, even if the #ifdef
	    is false.  Thus, even if the #ifdeffed part of the file nev-
	    er  gets compiled (e.g., #ifdef COMMENT), it cannot be arbi-
	    trary text.

		 Put #ifdefs in header files  instead  of  source  files
	    when possible.  Use the #ifdefs to define macros that can be
	    used uniformly in the code.  For instance, a header file for
	    checking memory allocation might look like (omitting defini-
	    tions for REALLOC and FREE):

		    #ifdef DEBUG
			    extern void *mm_malloc();
		    #       define MALLOC(size) (mm_malloc(size))
			    extern void *malloc();
		    #       define MALLOC(size) (malloc(size))

		 Conditional  compilation  should  generally  be  on   a
	    feature-by-feature   basis.   Machine  or  operating  system
	    dependencies should be avoided in most cases.

		    #ifdef BSD4
			    long t = time ((long *)NULL);

	    The preceding code is poor for two  reasons:  there  may  be
	    4BSD  systems  for which there is a better choice, and there
	    may be non-4BSD systems for which  the  above  is  the  best
	    code.   Instead,  use  define  symbols such as TIME_LONG and
	    TIME_STRUCT and define the appropriate one in  a  configura-
	    tion file such as config.h.

	    15.  Debugging

		 ``C Code.  C code run.  Run, code, run...  PLEASE!!!''
						 - Barbara Tongue

		 If you use enums, the first enum constant should have a
	    non-zero value, or the first constant should indicate an er-

	      enum { VAL_NEW=1, VAL_NORMAL, VAL_DYING, VAL_DEAD } value_t;

	    Uninitialized values will then often ``catch themselves''.

		 Check for error return values, even from functions that
	    ``can't''  fail.  Consider that close() and fclose() can and
	    do fail, even when all prior file operations have succeeded.
	    Write  your  own  functions so that they test for errors and
	    return error values or abort the program in  a  well-defined
	    way.  Include a lot of debugging and error-checking code and
	    leave most of it in the finished product.   Check  even  for
	    ``impossible'' errors. [8]

		 Use the assert facility to insist that each function is
	    being  passed  well-defined  values,  and  that intermediate
	    results are well-formed.

		 Build in the debug code using as few #ifdefs as  possi-
	    ble.   For  instance, if ``mm_malloc'' is a debugging memory
	    allocator, then MALLOC will select the  appropriate  alloca-
	    tor, avoids littering the code with #ifdefs, and makes clear
	    the difference between allocation calls being  debugged  and
	    extra memory that is allocated only during debugging.

		    #ifdef DEBUG
		    #       define MALLOC(size)  (mm_malloc(size))
		    #       define MALLOC(size)  (malloc(size))

		 Check bounds even on things that ``can't'' overflow.  A
	    function  that  writes  on  to variable-sized storage should
	    take an argument maxsize that is the size  of  the  destina-
	    tion.   If  there are times when the size of the destination
	    is unknown, some `magic' value of maxsize should  mean  ``no
	    bounds checks''.  When bound checks fail, make sure that the
	    function does something useful such as abort  or  return  an
	    error status.

		 * INPUT: A null-terminated source string `src' to copy from and
		 * a `dest' string to copy to.  `maxsize' is the size of `dest'
		 * or UINT_MAX if the size is not known.  `src' and `dest' must
		 * both be shorter than UINT_MAX, and `src' must be no longer
		 * than `dest'.
		 * OUTPUT: The address of `dest' or NULL if the copy fails.
		 * `dest' is modified even when the copy fails.
			char *
		copy (dest, maxsize, src)
			char *dest, *src;
			unsigned maxsize;
			char *dp = dest;

			while (maxsize-- > 0)
				if ((*dp++ = *src++) == '\0')
					return (dest);

			return (NULL);

		 In all, remember that a  program  that  produces  wrong
	    answers  twice  as  fast  is infinitely slower.  The same is
	    true of programs that crash occasionally  or  clobber  valid

	    16.  Portability

		  ``C combines the power of assembler with the por-
		  tability of assembler.''
			     - Anonymous, alluding to Bill Thacker.

		 The advantages of portable code are well  known.   This
	    section  gives  some  guidelines  for writing portable code.
	    Here, ``portable'' means that a source file can be  compiled
	    and  executed on different machines with the only change be-
	    ing the inclusion of possibly different header files and the
	    use of different compiler flags.  The header files will con-
	    tain #defines and typedefs that may  vary  from  machine  to
	    machine.    In  general,  a  new  ``machine''  is  different
	    hardware, a different operating  system,  a  different  com-
	    piler,  or any combination of these.  Reference [1] contains
	    useful information on both style and portability.  The  fol-
	    lowing  is  a list of pitfalls to be avoided and recommenda-
	    tions to be considered when designing portable code:

	      -  Write portable code first, worry about detail optimiza-
		 tions only on machines where they prove necessary.  Op-
		 timized code is often obscure.  Optimizations  for  one
		 machine  may  produce  worse code on another.  Document
		 performance hacks and localize them as much  as  possi-
		 ble.  Documentation should explain how it works and why
		 it  was  needed  (e.g.,  ``loop  executes   6   zillion

	      -  Recognize that some things are inherently non-portable.
		 Examples  are code to deal with particular hardware re-
		 gisters such as the program status word, and code  that
		 is  designed to support a particular piece of hardware,
		 such as an assembler or  I/O  driver.   Even  in  these
		 cases  there  are  many routines and data organizations
		 that can be made machine independent.

	      -  Organize source files so that  the  machine-independent
		 code  and  the  machine-dependent  code are in separate
		 files.  Then if the program is to be  moved  to  a  new
		 machine,  it  is  a  much easier task to determine what
		 needs to be changed.  Comment the machine dependence in
		 the headers of the appropriate files.

	      -  Any behavior that is described as ``implementation  de-
		 fined''  should  be  treated  as  a  machine (compiler)
		 dependency.  Assume that the compiler or hardware  does
		 it some completely screwy way.
	      -  Pay attention to  word  sizes.   Objects  may  be  non-
		 intuitive  sizes, Pointers are not always the same size
		 as ints, the same size as each other, or freely  inter-
		 convertible.   The  following table shows bit sizes for
		 basic types in C for various machines and compilers.

	    type     pdp11   VAX/11  68000   Cray-2  Unisys   Harris      80386
		    series          family             1100     H800
	    char         8       8       8        8       9        8          8
	    short       16      16    8/16   64(32)      18       24       8/16
	    int         16      32   16/32   64(32)      36       24      16/32
	    long        32      32      32       64      36       48         32
	    char*       16      32      32       64      72       24   16/32/48
	    int*        16      32      32   64(24)      72       24   16/32/48
	    int(*)()    16      32      32       64     576       24   16/32/48

		 Some machines have more than one possible  size  for  a
		 given  type.   The  size you get can depend both on the
		 compiler and on various compile-time flags.   The  fol-
		 lowing  table shows ``safe'' type sizes on the majority
		 of systems.  Unsigned numbers are the same bit size  as
		 signed numbers.

			       Type    Minimum   No Smaller
					# Bits      Than
			      char           8
			      short         16      char
			      int           16     short
			      long          32      int
			      float         24
			      double        38     float
			      any *         14
			      char *        15     any *
			      void *        15     any *

	      -  The void* type is guaranteed to  have  enough  bits  of
		 precision  to  hold  a pointer to any data object.  The
		 void(*)() type is guaranteed  to  be  able  to  hold  a
		 pointer to any function.  Use these types when you need
		 a generic pointer.  (Use char* and  char(*)(),  respec-
		 tively,  in older compilers).  Be sure to cast pointers
		 back to the correct type before using them.

	      -  Even when, say, an int* and a char* are the same  size,
		 they may have different formats.  For example, the fol-
		 lowing  will  fail   on   some   machines   that   have
		 sizeof(int*)  equal  to  sizeof(char*).  The code fails
		 because free expects a char* and gets passed an int*.

			 int *p = (int *) malloc (sizeof(int));
			 free (p);

	      -  Note that the size of an object does not guarantee  the
		 precision  of  that object.  The Cray-2 may use 64 bits
		 to store an int, but a long cast into an int  and  back
		 to a long may be truncated to 32 bits.

	      -  The integer constant zero may be cast  to  any  pointer
		 type.   The  resulting pointer is called a null pointer
		 for that type, and is different from any other  pointer
		 of  that type.  A null pointer always compares equal to
		 the constant zero.  A null pointer  might  not  compare
		 equal  with  a  variable that has the value zero.  Null
		 pointers are not always  stored  with  all  bits  zero.
		 Null  pointers  for  two  different types are sometimes
		 different.  A null pointer of one type  cast  in  to  a
		 pointer  of  another  type  will be cast in to the null
		 pointer for that second type.

	      -  On ANSI compilers, when two pointers of the  same  type
		 access  the  same  storage, they will compare as equal.
		 When non-zero integer constants  are  cast  to  pointer
		 types, they may become identical to other pointers.  On
		 non-ANSI  compilers,  pointers  that  access  the  same
		 storage  may  compare  as different.  The following two
		 pointers, for instance, may or may not  compare  equal,
		 and they may or may not access the same storage[6].

			 ((int *) 2 )
			 ((int *) 3 )

		 If you need `magic' pointers other  than  NULL,  either
		 allocate some storage or treat the pointer as a machine

			 extern int x_int_dummy;  /* in x.c */
			 #define X_FAIL  (NULL)
			 #define X_BUSY  (&x_int_dummy)

			 #define X_FAIL  (NULL)
			 #define X_BUSY  MD_PTR1  /* MD_PTR1 from "machdep.h" */

	      -  Floating-point numbers have  both  a  precision  and  a
		 range.   These  are  independent of the size of the ob-
		 ject.   Thus,  overflow  (underflow)   for   a   32-bit
		 floating-point  number  will happen at different values
		 on different machines.  Also, 4.9 times 5.1 will  yield
		 two   different  numbers  on  two  different  machines.
		 Differences  in  rounding  and  truncation   can   give
		 surprisingly different answers.

	      -  On some machines, a double may have less range or  pre-
		 cision than a float.

	      -  On some machines the first half of a double  may  be  a
		 float with similar value.  Do not depend on this.

	      -  Watch out for signed characters.  On  some  VAXes,  for
		 instance, characters are sign extended when used in ex-
		 pressions,  which  is  not  the  case  on  many   other
		 machines.  Code that assumes signed/unsigned is unport-
		 able.  For example, array[c] won't work if  c  is  sup-
		 posed  to  be  positive and is instead signed and nega-
		 tive.  If you must assume signed  or  unsigned  charac-
		 ters,  comment  them  as  SIGNED or UNSIGNED.  Unsigned
		 behavior can be guaranteed with unsigned char.

	      -  Avoid assuming ASCII.  If you must assume, document and
		 localize.   Remember  that  characters  may hold (much)
		 more than 8 bits.

	      -  Code that  takes  advantage  of  the  two's  complement
		 representation  of  numbers on most machines should not
		 be used.  Optimizations that replace arithmetic  opera-
		 tions  with equivalent shifting operations are particu-
		 larly  suspect.   If  absolutely  necessary,   machine-
		 dependent code should be #ifdeffed or operations should
		 be performed by #ifdeffed macros.  You should weigh the
		 time  savings with the potential for obscure and diffi-
		 cult bugs when your code is moved.

	      -  In general, if the word size or value range  is  impor-
		 tant,  typedef  ``sized'' types.  Large programs should
		 have a central header file which supplies typedefs  for
		 commonly-used  width-sensitive types, to make it easier
		 to change them and to aid  in  finding  width-sensitive
		 code.  Unsigned types other than unsigned int are high-
		 ly compiler-dependent.  If a simple loop counter is be-
		 ing  used  where either 16 or 32 bits will do, then use
		 int, since it will get  the  most  efficient  (natural)
		 unit for the current machine.

	      -  Data alignment is also  important.   For  instance,  on
		 various  machines a 4-byte integer may start at any ad-
		 dress, start only at an even address, or start only  at
		 a  multiple-of-four address.  Thus, a particular struc-
		 ture may have its elements at different offsets on dif-
		 ferent  machines, even when given elements are the same
		 size on all machines.  Indeed, a structure of a  32-bit
		 pointer and an 8-bit character may be 3 sizes on 3 dif-
		 ferent machines.  As a corollary, pointers  to  objects
		 may  not  be  interchanged  freely;  saving  an integer
		 through a pointer to 4 bytes starting at an odd address
		 will  sometimes  work, sometimes cause a core dump, and
		 sometimes fail silently (clobbering other data  in  the
		 process).  Pointer-to-character is a particular trouble
		 spot on machines which do  not  address  to  the  byte.
		 Alignment  considerations and loader peculiarities make
		 it very rash to assume that two  consecutively-declared
		 variables are together in memory, or that a variable of
		 one type is aligned appropriately to be used as another

	      -  The bytes of a word are of increasing significance with
		 increasing   address   on  machines  such  as  the  VAX
		 (little-endian) and of decreasing significance with in-
		 creasing  address  on  other machines such as the 68000
		 (big-endian).  The order of bytes  in  a  word  and  of
		 words  in larger objects (say, a double word) might not
		 be the same.  Hence any code that depends on the  left-
		 right orientation of bits in an object deserves special
		 scrutiny.  Bit fields  within  structure  members  will
		 only  be  portable  so  long as two separate fields are
		 never concatenated and treated as a unit. [1,3] Actual-
		 ly, it is nonportable to concatenate any two variables.

	      -  There may be unused holes in structures.   Suspect  un-
		 ions  used  for  type  cheating.  Specifically, a value
		 should not be stored  as  one  type  and  retrieved  as
		 another.   An explicit tag field for unions may be use-

	      -  Different compilers use different conventions  for  re-
		 turning  structures.   This  causes  a problem when li-
		 braries return structure values to code compiled with a
		 different compiler.  Structure pointers are not a prob-

	      -  Do not make assumptions  about  the  parameter  passing
		 mechanism.   especially  pointer  sizes  and  parameter
		 evaluation order, size, etc.  The following  code,  for
		 instance, is very nonportable.

				 c = foo (getchar(), getchar());

			 foo (c1, c2, c3)
				 char c1, c2, c3;
				 char bar = *(&c1 + 1);
				 return (bar);       /* often won't return c2 */

		 This example has lots of problems.  The stack may  grow
		 up  or  down (indeed, there need not even be a stack!).
		 Parameters may be widened when they are  passed,  so  a
		 char  might  be  passed as an int, for instance.  Argu-
		 ments may be pushed  left-to-right,  right-to-left,  in
		 arbitrary  order, or passed in registers (not pushed at
		 all).  The order of evaluation may differ from the ord-
		 er  in  which  they  are  pushed.  One compiler may use
		 several (incompatible) calling conventions.

	      -  On some machines, the  null  character  pointer  ((char
		 *)0)  is  treated  the  same way as a pointer to a null
		 string.  Do not depend on this.

	      -  Do not modify string constants[7].  One particularly  no-
		 torious (bad) example is

			 s = "/dev/tty??";
			 strcpy (&s[8], ttychars);

	      -  The address space may have holes.  Simply computing the
		 address  of  an unallocated element in an array (before
		 or after the actual storage of the array) may crash the
		 program.  If the address is used in a comparison, some-
		 times the program will run but clobber data, give wrong
		 answers, or loop forever.  In ANSI C, a pointer into an
		 array of objects may legally point to the first element
		 after  the  end  of  the array; this is usually safe in
		 older implementations.  This  ``outside''  pointer  may
		 not be dereferenced.

	      -  Only the == and !=  comparisons  are  defined  for  all
		 pointers  of  a given type.  It is only portable to use
		 <, <=, >, or >= to  compare  pointers  when  they  both
		 point  in  to  (or to the first element after) the same
		 array.  It is likewise only portable to use  arithmetic
		 operators on pointers that both point into the same ar-
		 ray or the first element afterwards.

	      -  Word size also affects shifts and masks.  The following
		 code will clear only the three rightmost bits of an int
		 on some 68000s.  On other machines it will  also  clear
		 the upper two bytes.

			 x &= 0177770

		 Use instead

			 x &= ~07

		 which works properly on all machines.  Bitfields do not
		 have these problems.

	      -  Side effects within  expressions  can  result  in  code
		 whose semantics are compiler-dependent, since C's order
		 of evaluation is explicitly undefined in  most  places.
		 Notorious examples include the following.

			 a[i] = b[i++];

		 In the above example, we know only that  the  subscript
		 into  b  has  not  been  incremented.  The index into a
		 could be the value of i either before or after the  in-

			 struct bar_t { struct bar_t *next; } bar;
			 bar->next = bar = tmp;

		 In the second example, the address of ``bar->next'' may
		 be computed before the value is assigned to ``bar''.

			 bar = bar->next = tmp;

		 In the third example, bar can be assigned  before  bar-
		 >next.   Although this appears to violate the rule that
		 ``assignment proceeds right-to-left'', it  is  a  legal
		 interpretation.  Consider the following example:

			 long i;
			 short a[N];
			 i = old
			 i = a[i] = new;

		 The value that ``i'' is assigned must be a  value  that
		 is  typed  as  if  assignment  proceeded right-to-left.
		 However,   ``i''   may   be    assigned    the    value
		 ``(long)(short)new''  before  ``a[i]''  is assigned to.
		 Compilers do differ.

	      -  Be suspicious of numeric values appearing in  the  code
		 (``magic numbers'').

	      -  Avoid preprocessor tricks.  Tricks such as  using  /**/
		 for  token  pasting  and  macros  that rely on argument
		 string expansion will break reliably.

			 #define FOO(string)   (printf("string = %s",(string)))

		 Will only sometimes be expanded to

			 (printf("filename = %s",(filename)))

		 Be aware, however, that tricky preprocessors may  cause
		 macros to break accidentally on some machines.  Consid-
		 er the following two versions of a macro.

		   #define LOOKUP(chr)  (a['c'+(chr)])  /* Works as intended. */
		   #define LOOKUP(c)    (a['c'+(c)])    /* Sometimes breaks. */

		 The second version of LOOKUP can  be  expanded  in  two
		 different ways and will cause code to break mysterious-

	      -  Become familiar with existing library functions and de-
		 fines.  (But not too familiar.  The internal details of
		 library facilities, as opposed to their external inter-
		 faces, are subject to change without warning.  They are
		 also often quite unportable.) You should not be writing
		 your  own string compare routine, terminal control rou-
		 tines, or making your own  defines  for  system  struc-
		 tures.  ``Rolling your own'' wastes your time and makes
		 your code less readable, because another reader has  to
		 figure  out  whether  you're doing something special in
		 that reimplemented stuff to justify its existence.   It
		 also prevents your program from taking advantage of any
		 microcode assists or other means of  improving  perfor-
		 mance of system routines.  Furthermore, it's a fruitful
		 source of bugs.  If possible, be aware of  the  differ-
		 ences  between  the common libraries (such as ANSI, PO-
		 SIX, and so on).

	      -  Use lint when it is available.  It is a  valuable  tool
		 for  finding  machine-dependent  constructs  as well as
		 other inconsistencies or program  bugs  that  pass  the
		 compiler.   If  your  compiler  has switches to turn on
		 warnings, use them.

	      -  Suspect labels inside blocks with the associated switch
		 or goto outside the block.

	      -  Wherever the type is in  doubt,  parameters  should  be
		 cast to the appropriate type.  Always cast NULL when it
		 appears in non-prototyped function calls.  Do  not  use
		 function  calls  as a place to do type cheating.  C has
		 confusing promotion rules, so be careful.  For example,
		 if  a function expects a 32-bit long and it is passed a
		 16-bit int the stack can get misaligned, the value  can
		 get promoted wrong, etc.

	      -  Use explicit casts when  doing  arithmetic  that  mixes
		 signed and unsigned values.

	      -  The inter-procedural goto, longjmp, should be used with
		 caution.   Many  implementations  ``forget'' to restore
		 values in registers.  Declare critical values as  vola-
		 tile if you can or comment them as VOLATILE.

	      -  Some linkers convert names to lower-case and some  only
		 recognize  the  first  six letters as unique.  Programs
		 may break quietly on these systems.

	      -  Beware of compiler extensions.  If used,  document  and
		 consider them as machine dependencies.

	      -  A program cannot generally execute  code  in  the  data
		 segment  or  write into the code segment.  Even when it
		 can, there is no guarantee that it can do so reliably.

	    17.  ANSI C

		 Modern C compilers support some or all of the ANSI pro-
	    posed  standard  C.   Whenever  possible,  write code to run
	    under standard C, and use features such as  function  proto-
	    types,  constant  storage, and volatile storage.  Standard C
	    improves program performance by giving better information to
	    optimizers.   Standard  C  improves  portability by insuring
	    that all compilers accept the same  input  language  and  by
	    providing  mechanisms  that try to hide machine dependencies
	    or emit warnings about code that may be machine-dependent.

	    17.1.  Compatibility

		 Write code that is easy to  port  to  older  compilers.
	    For  instance, conditionally #define new (standard) keywords
	    such as const and volatile in a global  .h  file.   Standard
	    compilers pre-define the  preprocessor  symbol  __STDC__[8].
	    The void* type is hard to get right simply, since some older
	    compilers understand void but not void*.  It is  easiest  to
	    create  a  new (machine- and compiler-dependent) VOIDP type,
	    usually char* on older compilers.

		    #if __STDC__
			    typedef void *voidp;
		    #       define COMPILER_SELECTED
		    #ifdef A_TARGET
		    #       define const
		    #       define volatile
		    #       define void int
			    typedef char *voidp;
		    #       define COMPILER_SELECTED
		    #ifdef ...
		    #       undef COMPILER_SELECTED

		 Note that under ANSI C,  the  `#'  for  a  preprocessor
	    directive  must  be  the first non-whitespace character on a
	    line.  Under older compilers it must be the first  character
	    on the line.

		 When a static function has a forward  declaration,  the
	    forward  declaration  must  include  the storage class.  For
	    older compilers, the class must  be  ``extern''.   For  ANSI
	    compilers,  the  class must be ``static''.  but global func-
	    tions must still be declared as ``extern''.   Thus,  forward
	    declarations  of  static functions should use a #define such
	    as FWD_STATIC that is #ifdeffed as appropriate.

		 An ``#ifdef NAME'' should end with either ``#endif'' or
	    ``#endif  /*  NAME */'', not with ``#endif NAME''.  The com-
	    ment should not be used on short #ifdefs,  as  it  is  clear
	    from the code.

		 ANSI trigraphs may cause programs with strings contain-
	    ing ``??'' may break mysteriously.

	    17.2.  Formatting

		 The style for ANSI C is the same as for regular C, with
	    two  notable  exceptions:  storage  qualifiers and parameter

		 Because const and volatile have strange binding  rules,
	    each  const  or  volatile  object should have a separate de-

		    int const *s;           /* YES */
		    int const *s, *t;       /* NO */

		 Prototyped functions merge  parameter  declaration  and
	    definition  in  to one list.  Parameters should be commented
	    in the function comment.

		     * `bp': boat trying to get in.
		     * `stall': a list of stalls, never NULL.
		     * returns stall number, 0 => no room.
		    enter_pier (boat_t const *bp, stall_t *stall)

	    17.3.  Prototypes

		 Function prototypes should be used to  make  code  more
	    robust and to make it run faster.  Unfortunately, the proto-
	    typed declaration

		    extern void bork (char c);

	    is incompatible with the definition

		    bork (c)
			    char c;

	    The prototype says that c is to be passed as the most natur-
	    al  type  for  the  machine,  possibly  a  byte.   The  non-
	    prototyped (backwards-compatible) definition implies that  c
	    is always passed as an int[9].  If a function has promotable
	    parameters  then  the  caller  and  callee  must be compiled
	    identically.  Either both must use  function  prototypes  or
	    neither  can  use prototypes.  The problem can be avoided if
	    parameters are promoted when the program is  designed.   For
	    example, bork can be defined to take an int parameter.

		 The above declaration works if the definition is proto-

		    bork (char c)

	    Unfortunately, the prototyped  syntax  will  cause  non-ANSI
	    compilers to reject the program.

		 It is easy to write  external  declarations  that  work
	    with both prototyping and with older compilers[10].

		    #if __STDC__
		    #       define PROTO(x) x
		    #       define PROTO(x) ()

		    extern char **ncopies PROTO((char *s, short times));

	    Note that PROTO must be used with double parentheses.

		 In the end, it may be best to write in only  one  style
	    (e.g.,  with  prototypes).  When a non-prototyped version is
	    needed, it is generated using an automatic conversion tool.

	    17.4.  Pragmas

		 Pragmas are used to introduce machine-dependent code in
	    a  controlled  way.  Obviously, pragmas should be treated as
	    machine dependencies.  Unfortunately,  the  syntax  of  ANSI
	    pragmas  makes  it  impossible  to  isolate them in machine-
	    dependent headers.

		 Pragmas are of two classes.  Optimizations  may  safely
	    be  ignored.  Pragmas that change the system behavior (``re-
	    quired pragmas'') may not.  Required pragmas should be  #if-
	    deffed  so  that  compilation  will  abort  if  no pragma is

		 Two compilers may use a given pragma in two  very  dif-
	    ferent  ways.  For instance, one compiler may use ``haggis''
	    to signal an optimization.  Another might use it to indicate
	    that  a  given  statement,  if reached, should terminate the
	    program.  Thus, when pragmas are used, they must  always  be
	    enclosed  in machine-dependent #ifdefs.  Pragmas must always
	    be #ifdefed out for non-ANSI compilers.  Be sure  to  indent
	    the  `#'  character  on  the #pragma, as older preprocessors
	    will halt on it otherwise.

		    #if defined(__STDC__) && defined(USE_HAGGIS_PRAGMA)
			    #pragma (HAGGIS)

		 ``The `#pragma' command is specified in  the  ANSI
		 standard  to  have  an  arbitrary  implementation-
		 defined  effect.   In  the  GNU  C   preprocessor,
		 `#pragma'  first attempts to run the game `rogue';
		 if that fails, it tries to run the game `hack'; if
		 that  fails,  it tries to run GNU Emacs displaying
		 the Tower of Hanoi; if that fails,  it  reports  a
		 fatal  error.  In any case, preprocessing does not
		     - Manual for the GNU C preprocessor for GNU CC

	    18.  Special Considerations

		 This  section  contains  some  miscellaneous  do's  and

	      -  Don't change syntax via macro substitution.   It  makes
		 the program unintelligible to all but the perpetrator.

	      -  Don't  use  floating-point  variables  where   discrete
		 values are needed.  Using a float for a loop counter is
		 a great way to shoot yourself in the foot.  Always test
		 floating-point  numbers as <= or >=, never use an exact
		 comparison (== or !=).

	      -  Compilers have  bugs.   Common  trouble  spots  include
		 structure  assignment  and  bitfields.  You cannot gen-
		 erally predict which bugs a compiler  has.   You  could
		 write  a  program  that  avoids all constructs that are
		 known broken on all compilers.  You won't  be  able  to
		 write  anything useful, you might still encounter bugs,
		 and the compiler might  get  fixed  in  the  meanwhile.
		 Thus,  you  should  write ``around'' compiler bugs only
		 when you are forced to use a particular buggy compiler.

	      -  Do not rely on automatic beautifiers.  The main  person
		 who  benefits from good program style is the programmer
		 him/herself, and especially  in  the  early  design  of
		 handwritten algorithms or pseudo-code.  Automatic beau-
		 tifiers can only be applied to complete,  syntactically
		 correct  programs  and hence are not available when the
		 need for attention to white space  and  indentation  is
		 greatest.   Programmers  can  do a better job of making
		 clear the complete visual layout of a function or file,
		 with  the  normal attention to detail of a careful pro-
		 grammer.  (In other words, some of the visual layout is
		 dictated  by  intent rather than syntax and beautifiers
		 cannot read minds.) Sloppy programmers should learn  to
		 be careful programmers instead of relying on a beautif-
		 ier to make their code readable.

	      -  Accidental omission of the second ``='' of the  logical
		 compare  is  a problem.  Use explicit tests.  Avoid as-
		 signment with implicit test.

			 abool = bbool;
			 if (abool) { ...

		 When embedded assignment is used, make the test  expli-
		 cit so that it doesn't get ``fixed'' later.

			 while ((abool = bbool) != FALSE) { ...

			 while (abool = bbool) { ...     /* VALUSED */

			 while (abool = bbool, abool) { ...

	      -  Explicitly comment variables that are  changed  out  of
		 the  normal  control flow, or other code that is likely
		 to break during maintenance.

	      -  Modern compilers will put variables  in  registers  au-
		 tomatically.   Use  the  register sparingly to indicate
		 the variables that you think are most critical.  In ex-
		 treme  cases,  mark  the  2-4  most  critical values as
		 register and mark the rest as REGISTER.  The latter can
		 be #defined to register on those machines with many re-

	    19.  Lint

		 Lint is a C program checker  [2][11]  that  examines  C
	    source  files  to  detect and report type incompatibilities,
	    inconsistencies between function definitions and calls,  po-
	    tential  program bugs, etc.  The use of lint on all programs
	    is strongly recommended, and it is expected that  most  pro-
	    jects will require programs to use lint as part of the offi-
	    cial acceptance procedure.

		 It should be noted that the best way to use lint is not
	    as  a  barrier  that must be overcome before official accep-
	    tance of a program, but rather as a tool to use  during  and
	    after  changes  or additions to the code.  Lint can find ob-
	    scure bugs and insure  portability  before  problems  occur.
	    Many  messages from lint really do indicate something wrong.
	    One fun story is about is about a program that  was  missing
	    an argument to `fprintf'.

		    fprintf ("Usage: foo -bar \n");

	    The author never had a problem.  But the program dumped core
	    every  time  an  ordinary user made a mistake on the command
	    line.  Many versions of lint will catch this.

		 Most options are worth learning.  Some options may com-
	    plain  about  legitimate  things, but they will also pick up
	    many botches.  Note that -p [11] checks function-call  type-
	    consistency  for  only a subset of library routines, so pro-
	    grams should be linted both with and without -p for the best

		 Lint also recognizes several special  comments  in  the
	    code.  These comments both shut up lint when the code other-
	    wise makes it complain, and also document special code.

	    20.  Make

		 One  other  very  useful  tool  is  make  [7].   During
	    development,  make  recompiles  only those modules that have
	    been changed since the last time make was used.  It  can  be
	    used  to automate other tasks, as well.  Some common conven-
	    tions include:

		   all   always makes all binaries
		 clean   remove all intermediate files
		 debug   make a test binary 'a.out' or 'debug'
		depend   make transitive dependencies
	       install   install binaries, libraries, etc.
	     deinstall   back out of ``install''
		 mkcat   install the manual page(s)
		  lint   run lint
	    print/list   make a hard copy of all source files
		  shar   make a shar of all source files
	      spotless   make clean, use revision control to put away sources.
			 Note: doesn't remove Makefile, although it is a
			 source file
		source   undo what spotless did
		  tags   run ctags, (using the -t flag is suggested)
		 rdist   distribute sources to other hosts
		file.c   check out the named file from revision control

	    In addition, command-line defines can be given to define ei-
	    ther  Makefile  values (such as ``CFLAGS'') or values in the
	    program (such as ``DEBUG'').

	    21.  Project-Dependent Standards

		 Individual projects may wish  to  establish  additional
	    standards beyond those given here.  The following issues are
	    some  of those that should be addressed by each project pro-
	    gram administration group.

	      -  What additional naming conventions should be  followed?
		 In  particular, systematic prefix conventions for func-
		 tional grouping of global data and also  for  structure
		 or union member names can be useful.

	      -  What kind of include file organization  is  appropriate
		 for the project's particular data hierarchy?

	      -  What procedures should  be  established  for  reviewing
		 lint  complaints?   A tolerance level needs to be esta-
		 blished in concert with the  lint  options  to  prevent
		 unimportant  complaints  from  hiding  complaints about
		 real bugs or inconsistencies.

	      -  If a project establishes its own archive libraries,  it
		 should plan on supplying a lint library file [2] to the
		 system administrators.  The lint  library  file  allows
		 lint to check for compatible use of library functions.

	      -  What kind of revision control needs to be used?

	    22.  Conclusion

		 A set of standards has been presented for C programming
	    style.  Among the most important points are:

	      -  The proper use of white space and comments so that  the
		 structure  of the program is evident from the layout of
		 the code.  The use of simple  expressions,  statements,
		 and functions so that they may be understood easily.

	      -  To keep in mind that you or someone else will likely be
		 asked  to  modify  code  or  make it run on a different
		 machine sometime in the future.  Craft code so that  it
		 is  portable  to  obscure machines.  Localize optimiza-
		 tions since they are often confusing and may be  ``pes-
		 simizations'' on other machines.

	      -  Many style choices are arbitrary.  Having a style  that
		 is  consistent  (particularly  with group standards) is
		 more important than  following  absolute  style  rules.
		 Mixing styles is worse than using any single bad style.

		 As with any standard, it must be followed if it  is  to
	    be useful.  If you have trouble following any of these stan-
	    dards don't just ignore them.  Talk with your local guru, or
	    an experienced programmer at your institution.


	    [1]  B.A. Tague, C  Language  Portability,  Sept  22,  1977.
		 This  document issued by department 8234 contains three
		 memos by R.C. Haight, A.L. Glasser, and T.L. Lyon deal-
		 ing with style and portability.

	    [2]  S.C. Johnson, Lint, a C Program Checker,  USENIX  UNIX[*]
		 Supplementary Documents, November 1986.

	    [3]  R.W. Mitze, The 3B/PDP-11 Swabbing Problem,  Memorandum
		 for File, 1273-770907.01MF, September 14, 1977.

	    [4]  R.A. Elliott and D.C. Pfeffer, 3B Processor Common  Di-
		 agnostic  Standards-  Version  1,  Memorandum for File,
		 5514-780330.01MF, March 30, 1978.

	    [5]  R.W. Mitze, An Overview of C Compilation of  UNIX  User
		 Processes   on  the  3B,  Memorandum  for  File,  5521-
		 780329.02MF, March 29, 1978.

	    [6]  B.W. Kernighan and  D.M.  Ritchie,  The  C  Programming
		 Language,  Prentice Hall 1978, Second Ed. 1988, ISBN 0-

	    [7]  S.I. Feldman, Make - A Program for Maintaining Computer
		 Programs, USENIX UNIX Supplementary Documents, November

	    [8]  Ian Darwin and Geoff Collyer, Can't Happen  or  /*  NO-
		 TREACHED */ or Real Programs Dump Core, USENIX Associa-
		 tion Winter Conference, Dallas 1985 Proceedings.

	    [9]  Brian W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger  The  Elements  of
		 Programming Style.  McGraw-Hill, 1974, Second Ed. 1978,
		 ISBN 0-07-034-207-5.

	    [10] J. E. Lapin Portable C  and  UNIX  System  Programming,
		 Prentice Hall 1987, ISBN 0-13-686494-5.

	    [11] Ian F. Darwin, Checking C Programs with lint,  O'Reilly
		 & Associates, 1989.  ISBN 0-937175-30-7.

	    [12] Andrew R. Koenig, C Traps and Pitfalls, Addison-Wesley,
		 1989.  ISBN 0-201-17928-8.

	    * UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories.

			 The Ten Commandments for C Programmers
				      Henry Spencer

	    1    Thou shalt run lint frequently and study its pronounce-
		 ments  with  care, for verily its perception and judge-
		 ment oft exceed thine.

	    2    Thou shalt not follow the NULL pointer, for  chaos  and
		 madness await thee at its end.

	    3    Thou shalt cast all function arguments to the  expected
		 type  if  they  are not of that type already, even when
		 thou art convinced that this is unnecessary, lest  they
		 take  cruel  vengeance upon thee when thou least expect

	    4    If thy header files fail to declare the return types of
		 thy  library functions, thou shalt declare them thyself
		 with the most meticulous care, lest grievous  harm  be-
		 fall thy program.

	    5    Thou shalt  check  the  array  bounds  of  all  strings
		 (indeed,  all  arrays),  for  surely  where thou typest
		 ``foo'' someone someday shall type ``supercalifragilis-

	    6    If a function be advertised to return an error code  in
		 the  event  of  difficulties, thou shalt check for that
		 code, yea, even though the checks triple  the  size  of
		 thy  code  and produce aches in thy typing fingers, for
		 if thou thinkest ``it cannot happen to me'',  the  gods
		 shall surely punish thee for thy arrogance.

	    7    Thou shalt study thy libraries and strive  not  to  re-
		 invent  them  without cause, that thy code may be short
		 and readable and thy days pleasant and productive.

	    8    Thou shalt make thy  program's  purpose  and  structure
		 clear  to  thy  fellow  man by using the One True Brace
		 Style, even if thou likest it not, for  thy  creativity
		 is  better  used  in  solving problems than in creating
		 beautiful new impediments to understanding.

	    9    Thy external identifiers shall be unique in  the  first
		 six characters, though this harsh discipline be irksome
		 and the years of  its  necessity  stretch  before  thee
		 seemingly  without end, lest thou tear thy hair out and
		 go mad on that fateful day when thou desirest  to  make
		 thy program run on an old system.

	    10   Thou shalt foreswear, renounce,  and  abjure  the  vile
		 heresy  which  claimeth that ``All the world's a VAX'',
		 and have no commerce with the  benighted  heathens  who
		 cling  to  this  barbarous belief, that the days of thy
		 program may be long even though the days of thy current
		 machine be short.


	    1.   The opinions in this document do not reflect the  opin-
		 ions  of  all authors.  This is still an evolving docu-
		 ment.   Please  send  comments   and   suggestions   to
		 pardo@cs.washington.edu  or  {rutgers,cornell,ucsd,ubc-

	    2.   Some automated program-analysis packages use  different
		 characters  before  comment lines as a marker for lines
		 with specific items of information.  In  particular,  a
		 line  with  a  `-' in a comment preceding a function is
		 sometimes assumed to  be  a  one-line  summary  of  the
		 function's purpose.

	    3.   enums might be better anyway.

	    4.   ``Tabstops'' can be blanks (spaces)  inserted  by  your
		 editor  in clumps of 2, 4, or 8.  Use actual tabs where

	    5.   #define void or #define void int for compilers  without
		 the void keyword.

	    6.   The code may also fail to  compile,  fault  on  pointer
		 creation,  fault  on  pointer  comparison,  or fault on
		 pointer dereferences.

	    7.   Some libraries  attempt  to  modify  and  then  restore
		 read-only  string  variables.  Programs sometimes won't
		 port because of these broken libraries.  The  libraries
		 are getting better.

	    8.   Some compilers predefine __STDC__ to be 0,  in  an  at-
		 tempt  to  indicate  partial compliance with the ANSI C
		 standard.  Unfortunately, it is not possible to  deter-
		 mine  which  ANSI  facilities are provided.  Thus, such
		 compilers are broken.  See the rule about ``don't write
		 around a broken compiler unless you are forced to.''

	    9.   Such automatic type promotion is called widening.   For
		 older  compilers,  the  widening rules require that all
		 char and short parameters are passed as ints  and  that
		 float parameters are passed as doubles.

	    10.  Note that using PROTO violates the rule ``don't  change
		 the  syntax via macro substitution.'' It is regrettable
		 that there isn't a better solution.

	    11.  Flag names may vary.